"I had a payment that didn’t go through and went as a default on my ClearScore. I’ve emailed to remove as I paid it the next day as realised money hadn’t come out! no agencies got involved as it was paid in full, but with that one it’s still on my score."

These stories were submitted via the Go Fund Yourself Instagram page. We've received close to 100. To share your story, please email info@gofundyourself.co






23% of 18 to 24-year-olds have turned to buy now, pay later services to fund their spending since the start of lockdown*



45% of young people who have used a buy now, pay later scheme in the last year say they have missed at least one payment*

*Compare the Market 

what is buy now pay later?

Buy now pay later (BNPL) is the name for a kind of credit payment (that’s debt to you and me…) that allows you to purchase goods, but pay for them either later or by instalments. In recent years, new digital payment providers have emerged, pitched at online shoppers who “wanna cop some new gear but can’t wait until payday”, as JD Sports puts it. They include Clearpay, Klarna, Laybuy and Afterpay.

The UK's most popular digital BNPL service is Klarna, accessible via thousands of online and high street shops from ASOS to SpaceNK to BooHoo. You can ‘pay later’ in just one click on pretty much anything, from a £4 scrunchie to some new sneakers. Whilst the value of these items might be small, the consequences of using these products incorrectly, are not. Of the issues we have identified we believe Klarna to be the most egregious. 

How does it work?

The new online providers let their customers ‘spread the cost’ of shopping online.

Klarna has three products:

Product name
Can application harm your credit score?
Interest Rate
Possible consequences of non-payment
Financing (slice it)
Yes - carries out hard credit check
18.9% (variable) per annum
Debt passed on to a debt collection agency. Damages credit score
Pay later in 30 days
No - carries out soft credit check
Debt passed on to a debt collection agency. Damages credit score?*
Pay in 3 instalments (slice it)
No - carries out soft credit check
Debt passed on to a debt collection agency. Damages credit score?*

so what's the issue?

Klarna is a product designed to eliminate the 'pain of paying' and with young people in mind. Take a look at this screengrab from a recent campaign featuring their investor, Snoop Dog.



Klarna knows that BNPL gets people to overspend. On their website, they tell their retailers:


A customer's order value increases by 55% when

shopping with instalments


BNPL can be useful for consumers and used well, however, most buy now pay later products are unregulated by the FCA. There is a risk that without better protection we'll see young people who already face the reality of a debt crisis and recession, under unmanageable financial pressure


Credit score contradiction?

*At the time of launching the campaign, there was clear evidence from Klarna retailers, supported by anecdotal evidence, that credit scores were damaged on non-payment. The campaign has since learned that Klarna's own website stated that non-payment of pay later products 'will affect your score' in June of last year. Klarna denies their 'pay later' products have ever damaged credit scores. The campaign is investigating these contradictions, has submitted this evidence to Klarna and will continue to update these materials. 



We have identified two areas of concern which need addressing in order to mitigate thESE riskS:


  • BNPL ads do not contain appropriate risk wording, if any. Retailers, who are not regulated are also advertising BNPL products and with no risk wording.​

Screenshot 2020-06-12 18.06.14.png
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  • BNPL providers use influencer marketing. Influencers are not required to include any risk wording on posts. Some fail to disclose #ads. ​​

  • BNPL providers use emotionally manipulative advertising which implies that BNPL can afford you a certain lifestyle. See this Killing Eve ad and these Clearpay IG posts from Bare Minerals. 

  • ​​BNPL ads often confuse customers and take advantage of a lack of financial literacy. For example: 

    • Klarna has three similarly named products. Two require a soft credit check which cannot impact your score upon application and another which requires a hard credit check which can impact your score on application. 77% of consumers do not understand the difference between soft and hard credit checks*. Klarna has previously stated on ads ‘no impact on your credit score’. This is confusing for consumers and also fails to acknowledge that ALL of their BNPL products can lead to your score being harmed when you fail to pay and that your debt will be passed on to a collection agency. 

    • Klarna ads have also stated ‘no interest, no fees, never’. This does not apply to all products and is also confusing for consumers.

*TSB - Research conducted by OnePoll: 2,000 respondents.

2. LACK OF consumer protection  

Screenshot 2020-06-12 15.51.42.png

Under the Consumer Credit Act, most BNPL products are unregulated. This needs to change.:

  • On several sites, BNPL is the default payment option. We've had reports from some consumers who've accidentally used BNPL

  • The FCA does not provide explicit guidance as to how the risks of BNPL products should be articulated fully, specifically damage to credit score or selling of debt to a collection agency.

Screenshot 2020-06-17 20.41.19.png
  • The campaign has exposed a number of contradictions:


Klarna have said that credit scores cannot be damaged by their 'pay later' products, even when a payment is missed. This contradicts information provided by ASOS, H&M, Gymshark and over 20 retailers, available when the campaign was launched. Information that is still live on some of these websites.  

  • Unless customers read the terms and conditions, there is no information about the consequences of non-payment at checkout. In fact, customers are given a false sense of security....

Screenshot 2020-07-06 16.50.38.png
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Klarna have stated that this was due to a change in terms and conditions but maintain that credit scores have never been damaged by their 'pay later' products. 


The campaign later discovered the following information on Klarna’s own website (live until June last year, possibly later) which would explain the anecdotal evidence of credit score damage:

Klarna credit score damage pay later

Either consumers have been given incorrect information or Klarna are covering up credit score damage, both possibilities are concerning. We will update this site once we have clarity on how these contradictions have emerged.  



Since launching the campaign, Klarna have shared details about the procedures used by their debt collectors. They state that their debt collectors do not report to credit reference agencies. This contradicts information provided by Klarna's own customer service teams which informed the information on this page. Klarna has stated that this information was never accurate and they are retraining their customer service teams. The campaign asked Klarna for more details on their debt collection procedures. You can view the answers here.  Klarna have said that their debt collectors do not report to credit reference agencies. 


“We agree that information needs to be clear and comprehensible, although we do not consider it needs to be in a prescribed format or include worked examples. It is more important that firms have the flexibility to be able to tailor their communications for their customers, bearing in mind their knowledge of how their customers react to different forms of disclosure.”




 proposed solutions 

improve advertising standards


For the Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) / Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) to develop new standards around the advertising of BNPL products, akin to the guidance around gambling


For appropriate risk wording to be enforced on all ads. This should include a reference to the consequences of non-payment e.g damaged credit score


For the ASA to update influencer guidelines around financial product promotion, requiring campaigns to contain appropriate risk wording and enforced #ad disclosure


For retailers promoting BNPL to be

held to the same standards. BNPL should never be the default payment option

protect consumers


For BNPL services to include warnings at the point of purchase informing customers about the consequences of non-payment


For customers to be given guidance at the point of purchase about how to use BNPL services 


For Klarna to amend their wording and information provided on credit score risk


For the FCA to regulate BNPL, requiring them to market BNPL as credit


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 further resources 

Debt charity, StepChange has contributed to multiple reports on the risks of BNPL

Clare has been vocal about the risks of BNPL, sharing examples of malpractice on Twitter

MAS has some useful advice on in-store credit and BNPL

Who is behind this campaign?

Alice Tapper is the author and founder of Go Fund Yourself. You can learn more here.

Email: alice@gofundyourself.co (not.com)

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